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Kamis, 08 November 2012

perbedaan present perfect tense and past perfect tense with the formula 16 tense


Rumus-rumus 16 tenses


A. PRESENT TENSE
1. Simple present tense (sekarang )
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + To be ( am, is, are)+ KB/KS/KK/KD
(-) S + To be+ not + KB/KS/KK/KD
(?) To be+ S + KB/KS/KK/KD
Yes , S + to be
No, S + to be + not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + V 1 s/es + Object ( O)
(-) S + do not/ does not + V1 + O
(?) Do/Does + S + V1 + O
Yes, S + do/ does
No, S + do not/ does not

2. Present continuous tense (sedang skrg)
(+) S + To be ( is, am, are)+ v-ing+ O
(-) S + To be + not + V- ing + O
(?) To be + S + V-ing + O
Yes, S + To be
No, S + To be + not

3. Present perfect tense ( sudah)
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + have/has + been + KB/KS/KD
(-) S + have/has+ not + been + KB/KS
(?) Have/Has + S + been + KB/KS/KD
Yes, S + have/ has
No, S + have/ has + not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + have/Has + V3 + O
(-) S + have/ has + not + V3 +O
(?) Have/Has + S + V3 + O
Yes, S + have/has
No, S + have/ has + not


4. Present perfect continuous tense ( sudah sedang sekarang )
(+) S + have/has + been + V-ing + O
(-) S + have/has +not+ been+ V-ing+ O
(?) Have/Has + S + been + V-ing + O
Yes, S + have/ has
No, S + have/ has + not



B. PAST TENSE
1. Simple past tense ( telah )
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + To be ( was, were )+ KB/KS/KK/KD
(-) S + To be+ not + KB/KS/KK/KD
(?) To be+ S + KB/KS/KK/KD
Yes , S + to be
No, S + to be + not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + V 1 s/es + Object ( O)
(-) S + did not + V1 + O
(?) Did + S + V1 + O
Yes, S + did
No, S + did not

2. Past continuous tense (telah sedang)
(+) S + To be ( was, were)+ v-ing+ O
(-) S + To be + not + V- ing + O
(?) To be + S + V-ing + O
Yes, S + To be
No, S + To be + not

3. Past perfect tense ( telah sudah)
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + had + been + KB/KS/KD
(-) S + had+ not + been + KB/KS
(?) Had+ S + been + KB/KS/KD
Yes, S + had
No, S + had+ not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + had + V3 + O
(-) S + had + not + V3 +O
(?) Had + S + V3 + O
Yes, S + had
No, S + had + not

4. Past perfect continuous tense (telah sudah sedang )
(+) S + had+ been + V-ing + O
(-) S + had +not+ been+ V-ing+ O
(?) Had + S + been + V-ing + O
Yes, S + had
No, S + had + not


C. FUTURE TENSE
1. Simple future tense (akan)
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + will + be + KB/KS/KK/KD
(-) S + will+ not+ be++ KB/KS/KK/KD
(?) Will + S + be+ KB/KS/KK/KD
Yes , S + will
No, S + will + not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + will +V 1+ Object ( O)
(-) S + will not + V1 + O
(?) Will + S + V1 + O
Yes, S + will
No, S + will not

2. Future continuous tense (akan sedang)
(+) S + will + be + v-ing+ O
(-) S + will not +be + V- ing + O
(?) Will + S+ be + V-ing + O
Yes, S + will
No, S + will + not

3. Future perfect tense (akan sudah)
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S +will+ have + been + KB/KS/KD
(-) S + will+have + been + KB/KS
(?)Will +S +have + been + KB/KS/KD
Yes, S + will
No, S + will + not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S +will+ have + V3 + O
(-) S +will + not+ have + V3 +O
(?) Will + S +Have + V3 + O
Yes, S + will
No, S + will + not
4. Future perfect continuous tense (akan sudah sedang)
(+) S + will + have + been + V-ing + O
(-) S + will + not +havet+ been+ V-ing+ O
(?Will + S+ have + been + V-ing + O
Yes, S + will
No, S + will + not

D. PAST FUTURE TENSE
1. Simple past future tense 
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + would + be + KB/KS/KK/KD
(-) S + would+ not+ be+ KB/KS/KK/KD
(?) Would + S + be+ KB/KS/KK/KD
Yes , S + would
No, S + would + not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + would +V 1+ Object ( O)
(-) S + would not + V1 + O
(?)Would + S + V1 + O
Yes, S + would
No, S + would not

2. Past future continuous tense
(+) S + Would + Be + V-Ing+ O
(-) S + Would Not +Be + V- Ing + O
(?) Would + S+ Be + V-Ing + O
Yes, S + Would
No, S + Would + Not

3. Past future perfect tense
a. Nominal sentence
(+) S + Would + Have + Been +KB/KS/KD
(-) S + Would +Have + Been KB/KS
(?)Would +S +Have + Been + KB/KS/KD
Yes, S + Would
No, S + Would + Not

b. Verbal sentence
(+) S + Would + Have + V3 + O
(-) S + Would + Not+ Have + V3 +O
(?) Would + S +Have + V3 + O
Yes, S + Would
No, S + Would + Not

4. Past future perfect continuous tense
(+) S + Would + Have + Been + V-Ing + O
(-) S +Would + Not +Have+ Been+ V-Ing+ O
(?) Would + S+ Have + Been + V-Ing + O
Yes, S + Would
No, S + Would + Not

the different of present perfect tense and past perfect tense

Perbedaan
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Explanation (penjelasan)
The present perfect tense is used to talk about a past time, which has very strong meaning for the present. (present perfect tensedigunakan untuk berbicara tentangwaktu di masa lalu, yang memilikiarti yang sangat kuat untuk saatini).
The simple past tense is used to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. You state when it happened using a time adverb.( Simple past tense digunakan untuk membicarakan tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lalu. Kamu menyatakan ketika itu terjadi menggunakan keterangan waktu).
Formula (rumus)
Verb = S + have/has + v3 + O
Adjective = S + have/has + been + adj
Verb = S + v2 + O
Adjective = S + to be (was/were) + adj
Example (contoh)
Riri has seen rainbow
(besides informing riri activity (when the sentence is pronounced) is also an explanation that riri has seen a rainbow. Activity that occurs when the sentence is pronounced and has finished on the spot).
(selain menginformasikan aktifitas riri (saat kalimat diucapkan) juga ada penjelasan bahwa riri sudah melihat pelangi. Aktifitas itu terjadi saat kalimat diucapkan dan sudah selesai saat itu juga).
Riri saw rainbow yesterday
(only gives information on what activities are done riri. There is not explained whether riri already completed or still see the rainbow. Activities that occur before sentence is pronounced (this morning, last night, yesterday, etc).
(hanya memberi informasi aktifitas apa yang dilakukan riri. Disana tidak dijelaskan apakah riri sudah selesai atau masih melihat pelangi. Aktifitas itu terjadi sebelum kalimat diucapkan (tadi pagi, semalam, kemarin, dll)
Time synal (keterangan waktu)
Not followed by a description thatstates the time when the eventscompletion.
(tidak diikuti dengan keterangan waktu yang menyatakan kapan kejadian tersebut selesainya).
Followed by a description of timestating that the incident occurred at a time when past (for example, lastweek, last year, yesterday, thismorning, etc.).
(diikuti oleh keterangan waktu yang menyatakan bahwa kejadian tersebut terjadi diwaktu lampau (misalnya,last week,last year,yesterday,this morning,dll).



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